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Increasing anthropogenic pressure has led to an aggravation of problems arising in the interaction of human society with nature, and led to the development of global problems of the environmental plan. The beginning of the twenty-first century is characterized by the aggravation of human interaction with the environment, caused by the development of the scientific and technological revolution. The need to ensure the production process, using modern production technologies, increased the consumption of natural objects and resources, which, in turn, provoked an increase in the deterioration of the quality of the surrounding world.
The biosphere cycle is being disrupted, which has led to a weakening of the ecosystem's ability to regenerate itself. The threat to human health and life is real. The deterioration of environmental quality has led to a deterioration of the ecological situation in specific areas of the natural environment, which, in turn, has formed a planetary crisis of ecological character.
Ecological crisis is characterized by a critical level of environmental condition, at which the formed level of anthropogenic load on natural resources and objects can lead to ecological disaster.
If the crisis state of nature is subject to the process of restoration, then the catastrophic state is irreversible.
The processes of desert encroachment on the land are usually characterized by the territories of African countries located in the zone of insufficient moisture (arid zone), due to which the vegetation cover is impoverished. The annual conversion of land resources into the desert zone is close to six million hectares. The zone of sufficient moisture (humid zone) is also prone to desertification, but already as a result of irrational human economic activity.
One of the environmental problems is the reduction of tropical forests. Intensive deforestation (fifteen million hectares per year) leads to a decrease in the gene pool of the forest, a decrease in the supply of oxygen to the atmosphere of the planet, and as a consequence, a disruption of the cycle of substances and energy in nature.
The lack of fresh water on Earth increases the problem of pollution of the hydrosphere. The inflow of wastewater, untreated by sewage treatment plants, exacerbates the process of water pollution. Nitrogen, phosphorus, mineral, and highly toxic compounds reduce water quality.
The Earth's hydrosphere receives enormous volumes of wastewater containing industrial, agricultural, municipal and domestic waste. The United Nations Organization lists the Danube, the Dnieper, the Rhine, the Volga, the Seine, and the Mississippi as the world's most polluted rivers.
Millions of Africans use water that does not meet hygienic standards.
The water cycle forms the migration in the atmosphere of emissions from industrial, transport, and power plants. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds are involved in reactions in the atmosphere, followed by the formation of acid precipitation. The increase in the volume of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leads to an increase in the greenhouse effect.
An example of the negative effect of harmful impurities in the atmospheric air is the process of reducing the density of ozone in the atmospheric air. The presence of "ozone holes" contributes to the penetration of harmful cosmic radiation, which is detrimental to living organisms.
Population growth and the increasing number of cities have led to such global environmental problems as a shortage of fresh water, air and water bodies poisoned by toxic industrial substances, disposal of various wastes.
Inefficient use of natural resources has contributed to the complete extinction of individual species of flora and fauna. Over the past 400 years, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has reported the extinction of ninety-four bird species and sixty-three animal species. Some thirty thousand plant species may disappear.
The inflow of sewage from industrial, agricultural, transport, and oil production facilities has resulted in the pollution of sea and ocean waters. The balance in the nature is disturbed, flora and fauna of shallow sea territories suffer.
Uncontrolled fishing and marine plant fisheries also create global problems.
To solve global environmental problems, human society must come together and take action. Explore projects in Humance that address some of the planet's global problems. Support them, spread the word about them, and take part in preventing a global catastrophe on planet Earth.